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    EARTHQUAKES

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    Admin
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    Posts : 28
    Join date : 2011-09-05
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    Location : Hyderabad

    EARTHQUAKES

    Post  Admin on Tue Sep 06, 2011 11:51 am

    ALL YOU WANT TO KNOW ABOUT EARTHQUAKES:


    Global distribution of earthquake epicentres, 1963-1998:


    • An earthquake is a result of a sudden release of energy in the earth’s crust that creates seismic waves



    • Earthquakes are recorded with a seismograph and are reported on a magnitude on the Richter scale.



    • In general, earthquakes of magnitude less than 3 are imperceptible, and more than 7 cause serious damage



    • The intensity of an earthquake can also be measured on the Modified Mercalli (MM) scale. The MM scale quantifies the effect an earthquake has on humans, natural objects and man-made structures



    • The shaking caused by earthquakes can result in landslides, and in volcanic activity as well. When a large earthquake occurs in the oceans, the ocean floor can suffer sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami



    • Earthquakes are usually caused by rupture of geological faults, but can also be caused by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts and nuclear experiments



    • The point of initial rupture of an earthquake is called its hypocentre, while the point on the surface directly above it is called the epicentre



    • Earthquakes that occur under the ocean and of high magnitude can generate tsunamis (eg 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami)



    • The most powerful earthquake ever recorded is the Valdivia earthquake in Chile in 1960. It measured 9.5 on the Richter scale

    Mechanism of action


    • Earthquakes can occur anywhere within the earth where there is stored elastic energy sufficient enough to drive fault propagation along a fault plane



    • Tectonic plates move past each other smoothly only if there are no irregularities and asperities. Most plate boundaries do have asperities and this leads to stick-slip behaviour



    • Once the boundary has locked into a relative stable position, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increased stress and stored strain energy



    • This continues until the stress rises sufficiently to break through the relative stable position, suddenly sliding over the locked position of the fault and thereby releasing the stored energy



    • The energy is released as a combination of elastic seismic waves, frictional heating of the surface and cracking of rock, thereby causing an earthquake



    • This process of gradual build up of stress and sudden release of energy in the form of earthquakes is called elastic-rebound theory



    • It is estimated that less than 10 % of the total energy of an earthquake is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake’s energy is used to power fracture growth or is converted as heat generated by friction

    Occurrence of earthquakes


    • Minor earthquakes occur nearly constantly. Most of these happen in places like California and Alaska in the US, as well as in Guatemala, Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Japan and New Zealand. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently



    • However, in general, earthquakes can occur almost anywhere (even away from plate boundaries)



    • The relationship between frequency and intensity of earthquakes is roughly exponential i.e. for instance, there are roughly 10 times as many earthquakes of magnitude 4 as of magnitude 5



    • Most of the world’s earthquakes occur in Pacific Ring of Fire seismic belt. Massive earthquakes occur along other plate boundaries too, such as the Himalayas

    Induced seismicity


    • While most earthquakes occur due to natural movement of the earth’s tectonic plates, human activity can produce earthquakes as well

    • Four main human activities that contribute to earthquakes include



    1 Large dams

    2 Drilling and injecting liquids into wells

    3 Coal mining

    4 Oil drilling



    • For instance, the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China is believed to have been caused by the Zipingpu dam which caused the pressure of a nearby fault to fluctuate, increasing the movement of the fault and the magnitude of the earthquake

    Earthquakes and volcanic activity


    • Earthquakes often occur in volcanic areas



    • They are caused both by tectonic faults and the movement of magma in volcanoes



    • Such earthquakes can serve as early warning of impending volcanic eruptions. Eg: Mount St Helens eruption of 1980 (USA)

    Seismic waves


    • Seismic waves are waves of force that travel through the earth



    • Earthquakes produces different types of seismic waves that travel through the earth at different velocities:



    1 P waves (Pressure or Primary waves): they are longitudinal waves that travel fastest through solids, and are therefore the first waves to appear on a seismogram



    2 S waves (shear or secondary waves): transverse waves that travel slower than P waves.



    They do not exist in fluids such as air or water



    3 Surface waves (Rayleigh waves and Love waves): slower than P and S waves, but have much larger amplitude. These surface waves cause most damage during an earthquake



    • The propagation velocity of the seismic waves depends on density and elasticity of the medium



    • In solid rock, P waves travel at about 6-7 km/s (within the mantle about 13 km/s), while S waves travel at about 2-3 km/s (mantle 9 km/s)



    Global tectonic plate movement

    • Earthquakes can be recorded at great distances, since seismic waves travel through the whole of the earth’s interior



    • The absolute magnitude of a quake is reported on the Moment Magnitude scale, while perceived magnitude is reported on the Modified Mercalli (MM) scale. The Richter scale is another scale that measures the absolute magnitude – it is no longer used in academic circles but is still used in popular parlance.



    • As a rule of thumb, the distance to the earthquake epicentre is the number of seconds between the P and S waves multiplied by 8


    swetha b
    Guest

    Re: EARTHQUAKES

    Post  swetha b on Mon Oct 03, 2011 11:06 pm

    wow...great information thank you friend..its interesting....

      Current date/time is Wed Dec 19, 2018 8:47 pm