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    Ancient History

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    Join date : 2011-09-05
    Age : 28
    Location : Hyderabad

    Ancient History

    Post  Admin on Tue Sep 06, 2011 12:49 am

    Major Indus Valley Civilization Sites:
    Mohenjo-daro in Sindh, Harappa in West Punjab, Chanhudaro in Sindh, Kalibangan in Northern Rajasthan, Lothal in Gujarat, Banawali in Haryana and Surkotada in Gujarat.

    Vedic Age
    Aryans first occupied the Sapta Saindhava region. The seven rivers are:
    (read as modern day name - ancient name as given in Rig Veda)
    Kabul - Kubha (in Afganisthan)
    Ghaggar - Saraswati (dried up)
    Chenab - Askini
    Jhelum - Vitasta
    Ravi - Parushni
    Sutlej - Shatudri
    Beas - Bipasu

    Vedic literature includes the four Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads (Vedanta)

    The four Buddhist Councils:
    First Council: At Rajgriha under the chairmanship of Mahakassapa and patronage of Ajatasatru (483 BC); Sutta Pitaka (Buddha's teachings) and Vinaya Pitaka (Rules of monastery) compiled.
    Second Council: At Vaisali under the chairmanship of Sabakami and patronage of Kalasoka (383 BC); Division of the Buddhist Sangha into the orthodox "Sthaviravadins" and the unorthodox "Mahasanghikas".
    Third Council: At Pataliputra under the patronage of Asoka (around 250 BC) and the chairmanship of Mogaliputta Tissa; Third Buddhist text Abhidhamma Pitaka compiled.
    Fourth Council: In Kashmir under the patronage of Kanishka (1st century AD) and the chairmanship of Vasumitra helped by Asvaghosa; Division of Buddhists into two major sects - "Mahayanists" and "Hinayanists".

    swetha b
    Guest

    Re: Ancient History

    Post  swetha b on Mon Oct 03, 2011 11:22 pm

    Discovery of Ancient City of Mahenjodaro and Harappa :

    The year was 1922. Initial forays in delving into India’s past began when Dr R D Banerjee found the ancient city of Mohenjodaro (literally, `city of the dead’) in Larkana district of Sindh, now in Pakistan.

    A little later, archeological remains of another city, quite similar in planning and age, were dug up by Sir Daya Ram Sawhney in Harappa, in the Montgomery district of the Punjab. Sir John Marshall, who was the then chairperson of the Archeology department, decided this was a thing well worth looking into. Under his supervision, teams of archeologists worked in other areas of the Sindh and Baluchistan provinces of present Pakistan. What they came up with astounded the world.

    The Marvelous Town Planning of Mohenjodaro :

    The chief feature of Mohenjodaro, that amazes all curious spectators, is its superb town planning. The streets, which divided the city into neat rectangular or square blocks, varied in width but always intersected each other at right angles.
    The city had an elaborate drainage system consisting of horizontal and vertical drains, street drains and so on. The architecture of the buildings was clearly intended to be functional and minimalist, and certainly not to please the aesthete.

    Mohenjodaro was obviously a cosmopolitan city, the capital of the civilization or something, with people of different races mingling with the local populace.
    Studies reveal that four distinct races inhabited the city: Proto-Austroloid, Mediterranean, Alpine and Mongoloid. Not much is known about their socio-economic-religious life as the script of the civilization eludes decoding; many have come tantalizingly close, but then just that.
    They had their distinct religious sects, including a very active Mother Goddess cult, as is evinced from various seals that they have left behind not only here, but also in far-flung places like Mesopotamia. Which means that sea trade was very much part of their lives; this is confirmed from another source as their seals carry insignias of boats and ships on them.

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